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The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to develop biological indicators and ecological classification for assessment of the ecological quality status of rivers, lakes, coastal and transitional waters (ie estuaries). WFD compliant bioindicators and classification tools detecting impacts on structure (biodiversity) and functioning of aquatic ecosystems (i.e. fish, aquatic plants, algae and benthic invertebrates) are being developed by each member state.


Aquatonics staff and Associates have a wide range of expertise relevant to the WFD. For example:

  • Surveys of fish, benthic invertebrates and seaweeds
  • Chemical surveys of specific pollutants
  • Literature reviews for clients
  • Analysis of chemical and biological data held by the Environment Agency
  • Advice to clients on the implications of the WFD for their business

Aquatonics Ltd can carry out many of the ecological surveys required under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We have completed a one week course on the identification of seaweeds using a UK and Ireland WFD method that utilises a Reduced Species List (RSL) of approximately 80 seaweeds.Click here for photos of algae taken at the Workshop. We have also done an intensive course on seaweed identification on the Isle of Wight led by Ian Tittley. In May 2007 we were joined by Dr Emma Wells, an Associate of Aquatonics with a very detailed knowledge of seaweeds. Please click here for Emma's CV.

The Water Environment (Water Framework Directive) (England and Wales) Regulations 2003 are available here. Further information on implementation of the WFD in the UK and Ireland is available on the Water Framework Directive web site.

A list of the intercalibration sites in the EU is available here. A map showing the intercalibration sites is available here.

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